Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

Week 4 research

April 12, 2012

Week 4 research. Redrawing to scale of the basement of the brunswick. Many features are present in this basement that make it a very interesting architectural piece. Along with the obvious storage compartments, this basement hosts a bakery, laundry room, and barber shop.


Week 4: Brunswick Hotel 3D Modeling

April 7, 2012

After examining multiple blueprints for the Brunswick Hotel at the Lancaster Preservation Trust last week, I decided to create a 3D model of the structure of the building. My model shows the placement of I-Beams in the building and allows us to see the support system of the hotel. I hope to use this model to compare it to other Urban tall office building as well as additional tall office buildings from Chicago built in the same time period.

Week 4

April 6, 2012






The above is a 3d rendering of the block . The sketch up file shows detailing of windows and entrances during this period.However, this does not show all the detailing of the buildings.

The next step would be to create the year prior (1886) and the year after (2012).

relevent science buildings of late 1800 and early 1900

April 6, 2012

For this weeks research I sought to compare the construction of franklin and marshall’s new science building with what other colleges were doing at the same time period. These are the buildings that I saw to be most relevant.


Rankin Hall of Science (1906-1907)

Carroll college

Architect: Patton and Miller

Foundation: Waukesha limestone

Walls: Waukesha limestone

Roof: Spanish terra cotta tiles (original);


Funding for the Rankin Hall of Science came largely from a gift of Ralph and Elizabeth Voorhees. This gift was to help with the construction of three campus buildings, including this science building which was named after his friend and former Carroll College (WI) President, Walter Rankin. The building opened for classes in either 1906 or 1907, and the fabric of the building remains much the same today as when it was first built.

It is possible that Rankin Hall of Science was designed by Patton & Miller, because some aspects of the structure’s massing, hip roof, and rusticated stone exterior are similar to elements in the firm’s other buildings. But this attribution is uncertain and requires further research.

The other two buildings funded by the Voorhees’ generous gift were Voorhees Hall, and Voorhees Cottage, a modest president’s house that has since been razed.

Further sources

Langill, Ellen. Carroll College: The First Century, 1846-1946. Waukesha, WI: Carroll College Press, 1980.



Hughes Science Hall (1911)

Dakota Wesleyan University

Architect: Unknown

Foundation: Sioux quartzite

Walls: Sioux quartzite
Roof: wood; slate tiles


Hughes Science Hall is a four-story Sioux quartzite building. The cornerstone was laid on August 1, 1911, and dedication ceremonies marking its completion were held June 5, 1912. Science laboratories and classrooms were on the lower two floors, while the upper stories housed the School of Music and a new chapel.

During World War I the basement of Science Hall was temporarily converted into barracks for the campus Student Army Training Corps. Later, a basement room temporarily housed the library after College Hall burned in 1955.

Three beautiful, large stained-glass windows in the chapel were covered, possibly in the 1940s, and left hidden for decades until 1976, when Science Hall was renovated. Labs and offices were renovated in 1960, and a small greenhouse was added to the south side of Science Hall, just off the door to one of the laboratories, in the late 1970s. The biology labs were remodeled in 1984.

Ambassador George McGovern, the democratic presidential candidate in 1972, is a 1946 graduate of Dakota Wesleyan University and served on the faculty at DWU from 1950-1955. His office was on the third floor of Science Hall.

In 1996 Science Hall was renamed Hughes Science Hall in honor of Dr. Clifford Hughes, a 1927 graduate of the university. The music department has been housed in the basement since 1997, when the music program was restored at DWU. Music and theatre productions are held in Patten-Wing Theatre, which used to be the chapel. The theatre is named after Darryl Patten, class of 1960, a long-time associate professor of communication and theater, and Mary Wing, a former associate professor from the same department who taught for more than 16 years and was also Patten’s teacher.

In 2002, the doors on the north side of Hughes Science Hall were replaced and restored to their original appearance in a project funded in part by the South Dakota State Historical Society through the Deadwood Fund grant program. Hughes Science Hall is a contributing (historically significant) building within a historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Follow up sources:

Coursey, O. W. A History of Dakota Wesleyan University for Fifty Years (1885-1935). Mitchell, SD: Dakota Wesleyan University, ca. 1935.



Bio-Physics Building (1889)

Clark university

Original name: Chemical Building; Science Building

Architect: Earle, Stephen

Foundation: concrete
Walls: brick; stone (trim)
Roof: tar paper


The Bio-Physics building is an irregular Victorian brick structure with stone trim around the sills and a stone belt course above the high basement. Robert H. Goddard, the “father of modern rocketry,” used his lab in the basement of the Bio-Physics Building for his early rocketry experiments and construction. This culminated on December 6, 1925 with the rocket test in this building, done on a static rack, which was the first time a liquid-fueled rocket was ever able to exert enough force to lift its own weight. A few months later, on March 16, 1926, Goddard took the rocket out to a farm for the first flight of a liquid-fueled rocket. Furthermore, at the celebration of Clark’s twentieth anniversary, Nobel Prize winners A.A. Michelson, Theodore W. Richards, and Ernest Rutherford gave lectures here.


Bush-Brown, Albert. “Image of a University: A Study of Architecture as an Expression of Education at Colleges and Universities in the United States between 1800 and 1900.” Ph. D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1958.



Mary Frances Searles Science Building

Bowdoin College

Original name: Chemical Building; Science Building

Architect: Vaughan, Henry Woodbury and Leighton

Foundation: stone
Walls: brick
Roof: slate


Designed by Henry Vaughn around 1892, Searles Hall put Bowdoin in the forefront of undergraduate science education at the end of the 1800s. Vaughan’s design has been called “Jacobethan” by Henry Russell Hitchcock–“a successful hybrid, a transitional phase of English architecture which includes Gothic and nascent Renaissance elements,” (Patricia McGraw Anderson, The Architecture of Bowdoin College [Brunswick, ME: Bowdoin College Museum of Art, 1988], 42)–a style which influenced future college campus buildings. Vaughan composed the principal facade, on the quadrangle, in several interlocking sections. The central portion incorporates two narrow octagonal towers that extend the full height into the projecting gable. To either side is a recessed area four bays wide, each terminating in a straight-sided gable lower than that of the central position. On either side beyond is a projecting four-bay mass, narrower than its neighbor but capped by a generous curved Dutch gable. In turn, these sections are flanked by octagonal crenellated turrets. These substantial and picturesque elements also create a handsome transition to the north and south facades, which contained, respectively, entrances to the Departments of Physics and Chemistry.

In 1998, the architectural firm Cambridge Seven from Boston carried out the renovation and re-use of the Searles, for which they received a 2002 Education Design Showcase Grand Prize Award. They designed a very successful contextual addition visible from Maine Street. The tripartite design Vaughn originally created was no longer functional for 21st century instruction in Biology and Physics. The teaching style it embodied–the lecture with a separate lab–was out-of-date, and so the building was renovated to house modern curricula in computer science, mathematics, and physics. Biology moved to the Druckenmiller Science Complex. Chemistry had moved to Cleaveland Hall in the 1950s.

Follow up sources:

Anderson, Patricia McGraw. The Architecture of Bowdoin College. Brunswick, Me.: Bowdoin College Museum of Art, 1988

Dober, Richard P. Campus Architecture: Building in the Groves of Academe. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.



Progress: Week #4

April 6, 2012

The past week I have been making a mixture of technical and mechanical drawings based on the old pictures of North Queen Street.  These sketches will serve as a midway point between the actual buildings and photographer. After my sketches are completed, I will try to retake and recreate these old photos of current day North Queen Street.  I will then sketch these photos along with straight elevation plans of the first two blocks of North Queen Street.

The first sketch I have been working on is based on an isometric viewpoint.  This vantage point allows a 3-dimensional look and keeps all the buildings to the same relative scale.  These drawings will have more detail than the elevation sketches because they more attention to detail.  The buildings don’t exist anymore so I must study intently all of architectural characteristics in the 1900’s-1920’s photography.

In progress:

Week 4 Research- Separate Archive Info.

April 6, 2012

For the duration of the fourth week blog entry, I spent most of my time in the Archive Special Collections researching the two different firms I have been assigned for my final project, York & Sawyer and McKim Mead & White. Most of my time spent during this research section of the project was retrieving the documentation of the two architectural firms which are located in the University of Penn’s Archive Collection.  Today, on 4/6/2010 Tom paced through the University of Penn’s archive and the University of Columbia’s Archive to find some background and valid information of these two major firms located in New York City. Later in my research, I found out I would not be able to recover these documentations of these architectural companies until the following week, which would give Tom or Mike time to call the Archival centers, granting me access to these documents at these two separate universities.

My second objective during the fourth week of my research was to acquire some architectural work from both of these architectural firms and link the relevance of their work back to the Brunswick Hotel which is the main focus of my final research project.

York & Sawyer:

York and Sawyer were predominantly a Beaux-art architectural organization. The business was run by a partnership of two men, Edward York and Philip Sawyer. In 1898 both of these men established their business in New York City and began to become known for many of their outstanding structures. At the time, York & Sawyer became very popular in the construction of hospitals and banks. Both of these men trained in McKim, Mead and White.


The Former headquarters of the Brooklyn Headquarters:


McKim, Mead & White:

This was one of the most prominent architectural videos in the twentieth century.  The architectural firm has three partners who were Charles Mckim, William Mead and Stanford White. This specific firm was major training grounds for prominent architects, designers and draftsmen.



Haifa/Baedekers/Ocean Liners

April 6, 2012

Haifa is the largest city in Northern Israel. The city is known as architecturally beautiful, especially the Baha’i Gardens pictured above. The city lies about 60 miles north of Tel Aviv, and is an important trading port. This is probably why Urban visited. It is an easy, deep-water port that his ship could dock at and refuel. Also, in 1918 the city was taken over by the British. Under their mandate, Haifa became an industrial port city and was connected extensively with the rest of the world. Urban could have gotten on a train anywhere in the Middle East and ended up in Haifa, as there was the terminus to major train lines from Northern Africa to Iraq. Also, Haifa was a popular destination for ocean liners because the climate is beautiful all year long. Tempered by the Mediteranean, Haifa is also on the end of a large Wadi, or valley. The hot desert air from the east meets the fresh sea air outside of Haifa’s borders, so the city never gets too hot or humid.



Baedekers are a series of travel books, similar to a Frommers, that were quite popular for people that took European trips in the early part of the century. They are quite extensive, and Urban would have used them to plan his trips around specific cities. For instance, Ceuta, Morocco has a Baedekers that outlines the city, the places of interest to visit and the common customs and simple language phrases one is likely to encounter. Having been used quite extensively since 1827, Baedekers was a staple for any traveler during the time Urban took his trip.

Ocean Liners

To get to Europe, Urban took an ocean liner. Ocean liners are different from cruise ships from the standpoint that they were made to withstand some of the roughest conditions in the world, and still deliver the passengers safely. Urban’s ship, the S.S. Roma, ferried thousands of people across the Pond during the 27 years it was in use, although it began as a ship for the Italians to use in the Mediteranean. After World War 1, many shipmakers were waiting for large orders. When one came, Navigazione Generale, an Italian company, ordered 30,000 gross tons of trans-atlantic ocean liners. The very first one they built was called the Roma. This monstrous ship was 215.25 meters long, with a 25.20 meter beam. That means this ship was BIG. More than two football fields long, and weighing 48,502 tonnes, this all-steel hulled ship was enormous. With her four geared steam engines, the Roma was capable of 1700 passengers at a time. Her maximum speed of 20 knots was two knots faster than her sister ship, the Augustus. Even so, it would take this monstrosity about 6 days and 10 hours to complete a crossing going full speed. During Urban’s time, however, they moved slightly slower because their understanding of weather systems was not as advanced as ours today. They had to be able to go around massive storm systems, or they would risk being sunk. That was a very real risk, especially in the 1930’s. Even today, as far as technology has advanced, one trans-atlantic ship sinks every two weeks. That is an astounding statistic. That makes a trans-atlantic crossing, by ship, in 2012, more dangerous than shark attacks, bee stings and snake bites. As we go back to Urban’s time, a crossing becomes even more dangerous. Mechanical failure on ships was a too-frequent occurrence and skilled mechanics were rarely on passenger ships, their respective nations would generally pay handsomely for their work in the navy.

Research Project: Week #4

April 6, 2012

For the duration of my fourth week of research, I spent time looking at buildings constructed by James Windrim.  I found a catalog of all of these buildings and noticed an astonishing pattern.  Aside from the structures he created in Philadelphia (Philadelphia Masonic Temple 1868-73, The Academy of Natural Sciences 1868-72, The Kemble-Bergdoll Mansion 1885, The Smith Memorial Playground & Playhouse 1898-99,  The Smith Memorial Arch, The Native American Building 1900, The Commonwealth & Tile Trust Company Building 1901-06, The Lafayette Building 1907-08, and The Main Building of Thomas Jefferson Hospital in 1903) Windrim built 8 post offices across the country.  This list of post offices included the 1889-92 project in which Emlen Urban was the onsite supervisor.  From 1889-1891 Windrim built post offices across the nation.  While he decided to be consistent with the types of buildings he constructed in this time period, he was also extremely consistent with the building’s style as well.

1) Carson City, Nevada: 1888-91








2) Abingdon, Virginia: 1889-90









3)  Lancaster, Pennsylvania: 1889-92













4) Vicksburg, Mississippi: 1890-92









5) Scranton, Pennsylvania: 1890-94









6) Detroit, Michigan: 1890-97











7) Springfield, Montana: 1891-94













8) Sacramento, California: 1891-94













After seeing the beautiful Lancaster Municipal building for the first time, I immediately wondered what James Windrim’s other architectural pieces would look like.  After I researched his work from Philadelphia and elsewhere, I noticed that many if not all of his buildings had some sort of common denominator.  What I found so interesting about all of these pieces of art was that no matter where he went in the country, whether east or west coast, Windrim brought his own unique style to cities that hired him.  By doing this, Windrim’s work will always be so special because he didn’t let geography change the way he constructed his buildings.  With this being said, Windrim built all of these post offices nation wide in a very similar way.  By looking at the images of these structures, one notices that he uses arcs in every individual building, usually as the boarder for windows.  Like in the Lancaster Municipal Building, Windrim uses a Moorish or Venetian style of architecture.  In downtown Lancaster, the municipal building is the only building of this style, making it stand out much more than the others.  Perhaps Windrim realized this was a way for him to isolate his work from his competition.  These post offices are all pretty much asymmetrical and constantly have the roof of the structure coming up to a sharp points, giving them a sort of castle look.  What is most noticeable in all of these buildings is there is always one main section that is elevated higher than the rest, containing some substantial form of venustas making it eye grabbing to passerby.  For example, the Lancaster Municipal Building’s copper dome atop of a structure much higher than the rest.  The buildings differed a little on the exterior but were mostly comprised of red or white colored brick.  James Windrim was very consistent in the style of buildings he placed around the country, coining him his own specific appearance to be used over and over again.


Windrim & Urban Correspondence – Week Four

April 6, 2012

Objectives – To analyze the venustas of the Windrim designed Lancaster Municipal Building.

Summary – I visited the site of the Lancaster Municipal Building this week and took a few photographs with my phone. I noticed the intricate masonry work and the beautiful venustas on the front of the building. The key area that I focused on was the arched windows next to the main entrance way. The stonework is original and was put in during construction. I noticed the windows and the stone patterns immediately upon examining the building. There is the same white tile on the front of the building that we have seen consistently used by Urban on other buildings in Lancaster. It can be inferred that Urban was copying Windrim’s style with the white tile facade. These round arches also serve a functional purpose by bearing weight of the structure above it. The pillars they are built on are also bearing the weight of the building. Not only was this building built with utilitas in mind (first Post Office in Lancaster) but clearly Windrim and Urban felt it necessary to beautify the building. It must have really stood out amongst its neighboring buildings in the 1890’s because it continues to emanate power and respect to those who see it today. I made a sketch up of the windows and included a few of the digital pictures from my phone.

Photographs –   

This is my sketch up design of the arched windows flanking the main entrance.



A few pictures taken from across the street of the Municipal Building.



An up close photograph of the arched windows. Notice the detailed masonry work.


Week Four Research (3-D Model Of the I-Beam Ornament)

April 5, 2012

Week Four Research Project:


This week I was able to go to the preservation trust and view architect’s drawings of the Brunswick hotel.  This allowed me to understand I-beam placement and its effect on the the outside of a building


Originally when I arrived at the preservation trust my goal was to understand the generally structure, but as I started to look closer at the details for the ornaments and how they fit into the structure, I began to become very interested in the structure of the buildings but specially how Iron beams are placed to allow for optimum decoration on buildings

Main Points:

To understand this better and to be able to place the complexity of the I-beams use into my head I made a 3-D model to insure that this complex arrangement of structure and beauty was and will be preserved.  It may also prove useful to other class mates, this is because the piece that I choose to model is repeated throughout the building many times and has a consistent build to my 3-D model.


3-D Model Shows the front and how a simply pedestrian would view the building

3-D SIde View