Archive for the ‘Jordan Weaver’ Category

York & Sawyer/ Brunswick Hotel- Beaux- Art

March 30, 2012

My objective for my research this week was to meet with Chris and Mike at the special collection archive room to discover more information about C. Emlen Urban, and one of his most famous architectural designs, the Brunswick Hotel. Thus far in my research I have visited the Lancaster Preservation Trust to take notes and pictures of the different floor plans of the Brunswick Hotel. I know am able to gather historical information on the architect and the historical buildings in Martin Library that will demonstrate the accurate information I need.  I will also be thoroughly discussing the Lancaster Trust Company and how York and Sawyer used their architectural tactics to design this building.

37-41 North Market Street; 1911; four story brick bank, large lunette windows on the east and west ends, built from designs of York and Sawyer of New York City and the C. Emlen Urban of Lancaster, by contractor Herman Wohlsen, this section of Market Street was added onto the original 1889 Lancaster Trust Building on North Queen Street, now gone; the Lancaster Trust Company was the only major Lancaster County bank to fail during the depression.

One of C. Emlen Urban’s architectural designs sits on the corner of Northeast Chestnut and North Queen Street, standing directly next to the YMCA building which both appear very similarly alike.  Now that I have discovered direct  and historical information the primitive buildings in Lancaster that deal with my project, I am know able to visit the University of Penn archives, to discover the work of York & Sawyer on these buildings.

C, Emlen Urban’s Brunswick Hotel was demolished in July 1965. This was not the first time the building was destroyed. It was once earlier built in the 1800’s. First built in the late 1800’s, the building was demolished in the first decade of the 1900’s in order for urban to recreate the building in his famous architectural style. Urban’s design and architectural plan incorporated, the Eight-story Brunswick Hotel was built in two stages. First, a seven-bay western portion was completed in 1915 and a completely eastern portion was finished in 1920. Urban employed his signature Beaux Art stlye to the building. Additionally he used rusticated on the ground floors, carved keystones and window lintels along with decorative cartouches lines the eighth floor cornice. The Brunswick was a hotel of beauty and Lancaster finest luxury hotel. Unfortunately, the Brunswick was once again destroyed in 1966. There has been talk of building a more modern version of the Brunswick Hotel, but the historical beauty of the hotel would not do its justice.

My objective for the upcoming week is to meet with Tom and discuss the University of  Penn archives and dissect different works of York & Sawyer.


Historical Preservation Trust of Lancaster County:  Our presents and past: an update of Lancaster’s Heritage. Lancaster. Pa.: Historical Preservation Trust, 1985.

Lancaster’s Architectural Heritage,,browse.asp?a=869To Build Strong and Substantial.

Our Present Past (Historical blurbs on all of the architectural buildings in lancaster since the late 1800s.)


Modeling Space research project

February 24, 2012

For my research project I have decided to pursue the modeling space option and create a 3D model of one of Emlen Urban’s buildings. I have decided to recreate one of the most important buildings in Lancaster, the Griest tower. I will use the 3D model to answer questions relating to its space and beauty. Specifically, one cultural issue I plan to analyze and test is how the significance of the size of building relates its power and significance to the city. Being the only skyscraper in Lancaster, and at one point in time holding all offices for the utility companies of Lancaster, the Griest tower holds a large significance in the center circle of Lancaster. I hope to connect this size and power of the tall building to the culture and power of the city in which it exists.

Historical Issues

February 24, 2012

In hearing Frederic Klein’s point of view of Lancaster in his time, he makes clear the important issues that the growth of the city had on the people and the culture. One of the main issues facing people in  Lancaster was the increase in consumerism and the spending of money. As the technology increased, more convenient stores and department stores were constructed. This created more jobs for people in the city and thus ultimately lead to more money being spent in the newly developed stores. This trend caused an economic boom in Lancaster during this time. Additionally, while more money was being spent, as we have seen in the buildings we have observed, many banks were first brought into play around this time. With the increase in jobs, and increase in consumerism, there was additionally an increase in saving. Many banks were introduced at this time and many people of the city took advantage of the opportunity to save in these institutions. Following up on consumerism and issue of spending money, Advertisement became very popular around this time. Advertising became a problem as it influenced consumerism and the spending of money. Additionally, around this time, Klein saw the first cars in Lancaster and noticed their boom. Everyone in the town wanted to have one of these new machines and continuation of spending money and working more only lead to a more rapid economic boom. If I am correct I remember Klein saying if the growth of the city would have continued its growth the population today would be 1 million.

Greist Tower, 8 N. Queen

February 17, 2012


The Greist tower has a trabeated construction. Made of steel, the building was built 14 stories tall with post and lintel type construction. This is common in the tall symmetrical nature of the skyscraper. This type of construction is evident if you notice the exterior of the wall between the upper windows. The windows from floor 2, 3rd story, all the way to the 13th floor are in perfect vertical and horizontal alignment. Within the windows are raised portions of the limestone which is evidence that the steel beams are present. The steel beams used in the post and lintel construction travel horizontally and vertically between the windows.


The Utilitas of the large skyscraper is evident from first look. The bottom floor is tall and open with large arched windows. Today, this floor houses the Bank of America. The open large floor is aesthetically pleasing to the people who travel by and makes people feel welcome. The 2 story bottom floor is also important in housing the large bank inside. Above the first floor are 12 floors of symmetric windows that are tinted and unviewable by the outer public. These windows which suggest multiple rooms house many offices for important utility companies in lancaster. The size and simple symmetric construction of the skyscraper has great use housing firms needing many offices located near each other.


The Greist Tower, being the only skyscraper and tallest building in Lancaster, has an importance to the city that must be upheld and displayed through its aesthetic beuty. From first look at the tower, other than its size, most people notice the huge 12 foot arched windows on the first floor of the building. These buildings provide an open and welcome feel to walker-bys. Also, the round arches display power and size as represented by the Romans in earlier years. Additionally, most of the exterior is constructed of limestone. The light beij color of the limestone is easy on the eyes and I believe has a nice pleasing appearance. Another part of the tower that is quickly noticed by the public is the detail and artwork above the first floor. Above the large 2 story first floor is a ledge with flower type artwork carved into the exterior. Above the first floor, less beauty and mor business is evident in the construction except for the last 2 floors. The 12th and 13th floors are made of a different material and has ledges above and below the 2 floors. Additionally, the windows are different from the office styled below and are more aesthetically pleasing. This is expected as the height of the building allows for these 2 floors to be seen from many points in Lancaster.


Elevation Plan:

Modeling Space research project

February 17, 2012

For my research project I have decided to pursue the modeling space option and create a 3D model of one of Emlen Urban’s buildings. I have decided to recreate one of the most important buildings in Lancaster, the Greist tower. I will use the 3D model to answer questions relating to its space and beauty. Specifically, one cultural issue I plan to analyze and test is how the significance of the size of building relates its power and significance to the city. Being the only skyscraper in Lancaster, and at one point in time holding all offices for the utility companies of Lancaster, the Greist tower holds a large significance in the center circle of Lancaster. I hope to connect this size and power of the tall building to the culture and power of the city in which it exists.

Theodore Appel tomb

February 3, 2012

The most significant figure represented on my tombstone was Theodore Appel D.D. His name, along with his wife’s, Susan Burton Wolff Appel, is engraved on one of the large sides of the tomb. Theodore Appel was born in 1823 in Easton, Pennsylvania. He attended Marshall College where he received his degree in 1842. Upon his graduation, Appel attended the German reformed church seminary in Mercersburg, PA. He completed and graduated from the seminary in 1845. Appel went on to become a professor of mathematics and mechanical philosophy at Marshall College in 1850. This was until Marshall College merged with Franklin College in 1853. Appel moved to Lancaster and became a part of the first faculty of Franklin and Marshall College. During his tenure as a professor at F&M, Appel taught mathematics, physics, and astronomy. Additionally, he served as the school librarian from 1853 to 1874. In 1877 he was appointed General Superintendent of the Home Missions of the Reformed Church. He additionally became the editor of the “Reformed Missionary Herald” and then the “Reformed Church Messenger.” There was little information about Theodore’s wife, Susan, except that she was a good housewife and there is a special collection of written pieces by her in the Franklin and Marshall archives. The two lived in what is now the Huegal Alumni House, used today as the Art office building. Theodore and Susan had 4 children, 2 of whom are also engraved on the tombstone. On one side, Bernard Wolff Appel, son of Theodore and Susan, is engraved into the tomb. If analyzed closely you can see that Bernard lived a short life, dying at age 9 of an illness. Dughter, Charlotte Wolff Appel, has her name engraved on the opposite side of brother Bernard. Charlotte has the most current engraving having died and been buried as late as 1940.

Both of the Children on the tomb were named after Susan’s Parents, Bernard and Charlotte Wolff. Bernard and Charlotte Wolff are the last 2 names that can be seen on the tombstone. Their names are engraved on the opposite side of Theodore and Susan and are the original owners of the tombstone. Due to the year in which Bernard Wolff died, the oldest death on the tomb, we can predict that this tomb was created around the year of 1860.


N. Queen, Grant St. and E. Orange

February 3, 2012

I analyzed the half block of Lancaster on North Queen St. between Grant St. and E. Orange St. If standing on Queen St., looking directly east, you would be facing the strip of buildings on my assigned half block. This specific half block is made up of 7 buildings, ranging in address from 35 N. Queen St. to 57 N. Queen.

From 1929 Sandborn Map

31-33 N. Queen
This building first appears on the 1886 map at the Corner of N. Queen St. and Grant St. Although the building remains unchanged in the 1891 and 97 map, the 1912 map shows that the building was lengthened and then attached to a building behind it. The building remained unchanged in 1929. According to Lancaster archives, this building was constructed in 1868 as a three story bay brick store. It was established as a food store and then remodeled in 1977 to become Schultz Hat store. Today it remains as a coffee shop. It stands today as a building constructed of a light rock and dark black wood trim.

Venustas: This building is not necessarily the most aesthetically pleasing on the block. The black and white color of the building is very plain. However, the first floor is a small cafe shop and they do a good job of making people feel welcome with the openness. The bottom floor is almost all windows and allows for walker-bys to look in and maybe pop in to grab something to eat. Above is simple windows which looks like apartment type buildings. The receding nature of the doors are used to “lure” in customers.

35-37 N. Queen
The building that is shown here in the 1929 map first appears on 1886 map but in a much different form. The spot is made up of two square buildings, side by side, with rectangular additions in the back of both buildings. These buildings remain this way in both the 1891 and 97 maps. Finally in the 1912 map the building appears as one large rectangular building. According to the archives, the original buildings were a part of D. A. Altick & Sons Carriage Factory and then in 1920 the Beyer Store was added as a department store. Today the Building serves as a Rent-A-Center store.

Venustas: This building is similar to 33-35 in that it is mainly white, some kind of stone construction. The bottom level is used by a Rent-A-Center and the all glass bottom wall allows for the public to see in and feel welcome as well. The Rent-A-Center sign sits on a ledge that has an arched appearance over the windows. The arch was seen in Roman times as power and strength. Also the windows above the first floor are very plain except for the 3rd story which has arches at the tops of the windows. A nice ledge caps off the top of the building.

39-41 N. Queen
The original spot is occupied by 2 buildings apart of the Carriage Factory and is present in the 1886 and 91 maps. However, in 1891 the New Era building was constructed as a 3 story four bay brick building for Queen Anne Printing Company. This can be seen on either of the 3 maps from 1897 and later. In 1890 the new building was originally intended to be a tavern for John A. Snyder, but he sold it before completion to J.M.W. Geist and John B Wargel, founders of Queen Anne Printing. The building today serves as a department store.

Venustas: This building is different from the others in that is made primarily of brick. the 2nd and 3rd floor exteriors are brick with multiple skinny windows lined in white wood. Below the top floors which suggest apartments, is a department clothes store. The bottom floor has a nice aesthetic beauty with green  walls and beige outlining windows going from one side to the other. This building also has an open and welcoming feel with lots of glass on the bottom feel. It also has the receding doors “luring” in customers.

43 N. Queen
The Eicholtz building was first recognized on the 1912 map. Like the previous 2 addresses, there were buildings at this address in the 1886,91, and 97 on the map but they were apart of the carriage factory as well. 1912 is when the building is on display in its full size. It was used as a movie theater in 1912. The building remained untouched until 1925 when it was turned into a department store. Built for Edward Grant Eicholtz as a rental property, Ross department store was the first tenent and first department store in Lancaster. Today this building hosts a small business selling clothing and other goods.

Venustas: Covered from the street by a tree, this building appears very similar to the first bulding on the block, 33-35. It is primarily white stone, with black wood ledge on the bottom floor. The bottom floor hosts a small business and is mostly made up of windows. Here they hang many items for the public to see as they walk by. The windows are lined by black and brown wood. The above floors are simple apartment style windows constructed with a simple white stone.

47-49 N. Queen
Building is first recognized in the 1912 map. Like the above address, in previous years, the buildings in this lot were used as a part of the carriage factory. In 1906 the building was completed as a four story three bay brick building used for offices. In 1929, the Sanborn map represented the first floor as a department store, with the above floors still serving as offices. In 1942, the original façade was replaced with a late Art Deco style façade. This was the only major construction project in Center City during World War II. Today this building hosts 2 small businesses. On the right side of the building lies a mini food café, and to the left is a tobacco shop.

Venustas: This building is one of the nicer appearing buildings on the block. Having the facade replaced in  1942, the building stands 4 stories, the tallest on the block, and has a nice light stone appearance. I believe the facade was replaced with limestone. The top 3 floors have symmetrical windows suggesting offices or apartments. The bottom floor, like others on the block hosts businesses. Two businesses split the floor and have open windows to allow the public to see in. the Windows are outlined by black metal and each door for the two businesses are in separate corners. They are trying to lure the public into their section of the building.

51-55 N. Queen
Similar to most of the buildings on my block, this building was first recognized on the 1912 map. The previous maps show small buildings at this address as the last part of the factory along this stretch of road. Although I’m not sure of its use around this time, both the 1912 and 1929 map show the building as having an open first floor and says the 3rd and 4th floors served as halls. Today the building is somewhat run-down and serves no purpose on this block. It is the only building I analyzed that is not currently being used. It is a retail property for rent that is currently vacant.

Venustas: This building is very plain and ugly to be honest. It serves no purpose and has no aesthetic beauty as it currently is vacant.

57, 61, 63, and 65 N. Queen Street
The 4 buildings on the corner of N. Queen and E. Orange are first seen on the 1912 map. In the previous 3 maps, 1886, 91, and 97, there was only 1 building in this lot and it served as the Union Bethel building. 1912 is first map where we see that 4 separate buildings were constructed. The buildings remained in the 1929 map as they appeared in 1912. Building 57 served as a drug store, and it was unclear in the maps the purpose of the other 3 buildings. Additionally, there were no records on these buildings in the Lancaster Archives. However, we are able to determine that at some time from 1929 to recent there was a major renovation to these buildings. Today this address hosts 1 large, 1 story building serving as a Rite Aid pharmacy. The building is entirely made of concrete so we can assume this renovation was done in the later half of the 1900s.

Venustas: The Rite Aid is a 2 story 1 floor building made of concrete. This is also one of the newer buildings on the block. It has windows along the bottom wall but they are currently blocked out by plywood. The wood adds no aesthetic value and looks very ugly. It also has a worn out black awning. The door, however, is located in the corner which serves as a good spot as the building can be entered from either Queen or Orange Street.

Archive book in Library, “Our Present Past” An update of Lancaster’s Heritage as prepared by the Historic Preservation Trust of Lancaster County.

Sandborn maps on edisk

Other Collections from the Franklin and Marshall Library.