Archive for the ‘Austin Zimmet’ Category

relevent science buildings of late 1800 and early 1900

April 6, 2012

For this weeks research I sought to compare the construction of franklin and marshall’s new science building with what other colleges were doing at the same time period. These are the buildings that I saw to be most relevant.

 

Rankin Hall of Science (1906-1907)

Carroll college

Architect: Patton and Miller

Foundation: Waukesha limestone

Walls: Waukesha limestone

Roof: Spanish terra cotta tiles (original);

Narrative:

Funding for the Rankin Hall of Science came largely from a gift of Ralph and Elizabeth Voorhees. This gift was to help with the construction of three campus buildings, including this science building which was named after his friend and former Carroll College (WI) President, Walter Rankin. The building opened for classes in either 1906 or 1907, and the fabric of the building remains much the same today as when it was first built.

It is possible that Rankin Hall of Science was designed by Patton & Miller, because some aspects of the structure’s massing, hip roof, and rusticated stone exterior are similar to elements in the firm’s other buildings. But this attribution is uncertain and requires further research.

The other two buildings funded by the Voorhees’ generous gift were Voorhees Hall, and Voorhees Cottage, a modest president’s house that has since been razed.

Further sources

Langill, Ellen. Carroll College: The First Century, 1846-1946. Waukesha, WI: Carroll College Press, 1980.

Sources:

http://hcap.artstor.org/cgi-bin/library?a=d&d=p2209

ImageImage

Hughes Science Hall (1911)

Dakota Wesleyan University

Architect: Unknown

Foundation: Sioux quartzite

Walls: Sioux quartzite
Roof: wood; slate tiles

Narrative:

Hughes Science Hall is a four-story Sioux quartzite building. The cornerstone was laid on August 1, 1911, and dedication ceremonies marking its completion were held June 5, 1912. Science laboratories and classrooms were on the lower two floors, while the upper stories housed the School of Music and a new chapel.

During World War I the basement of Science Hall was temporarily converted into barracks for the campus Student Army Training Corps. Later, a basement room temporarily housed the library after College Hall burned in 1955.

Three beautiful, large stained-glass windows in the chapel were covered, possibly in the 1940s, and left hidden for decades until 1976, when Science Hall was renovated. Labs and offices were renovated in 1960, and a small greenhouse was added to the south side of Science Hall, just off the door to one of the laboratories, in the late 1970s. The biology labs were remodeled in 1984.

Ambassador George McGovern, the democratic presidential candidate in 1972, is a 1946 graduate of Dakota Wesleyan University and served on the faculty at DWU from 1950-1955. His office was on the third floor of Science Hall.

In 1996 Science Hall was renamed Hughes Science Hall in honor of Dr. Clifford Hughes, a 1927 graduate of the university. The music department has been housed in the basement since 1997, when the music program was restored at DWU. Music and theatre productions are held in Patten-Wing Theatre, which used to be the chapel. The theatre is named after Darryl Patten, class of 1960, a long-time associate professor of communication and theater, and Mary Wing, a former associate professor from the same department who taught for more than 16 years and was also Patten’s teacher.

In 2002, the doors on the north side of Hughes Science Hall were replaced and restored to their original appearance in a project funded in part by the South Dakota State Historical Society through the Deadwood Fund grant program. Hughes Science Hall is a contributing (historically significant) building within a historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

Follow up sources:

Coursey, O. W. A History of Dakota Wesleyan University for Fifty Years (1885-1935). Mitchell, SD: Dakota Wesleyan University, ca. 1935.

Source:

http://hcap.artstor.org/cgi-bin/library?a=d&d=p496

ImageImageImage

Bio-Physics Building (1889)

Clark university

Original name: Chemical Building; Science Building

Architect: Earle, Stephen

Foundation: concrete
Walls: brick; stone (trim)
Roof: tar paper

Narrative:

The Bio-Physics building is an irregular Victorian brick structure with stone trim around the sills and a stone belt course above the high basement. Robert H. Goddard, the “father of modern rocketry,” used his lab in the basement of the Bio-Physics Building for his early rocketry experiments and construction. This culminated on December 6, 1925 with the rocket test in this building, done on a static rack, which was the first time a liquid-fueled rocket was ever able to exert enough force to lift its own weight. A few months later, on March 16, 1926, Goddard took the rocket out to a farm for the first flight of a liquid-fueled rocket. Furthermore, at the celebration of Clark’s twentieth anniversary, Nobel Prize winners A.A. Michelson, Theodore W. Richards, and Ernest Rutherford gave lectures here.

RELEVENT MATERIAL TO FOLLOW UP ON

Bush-Brown, Albert. “Image of a University: A Study of Architecture as an Expression of Education at Colleges and Universities in the United States between 1800 and 1900.” Ph. D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1958.

SOURCE

http://hcap.artstor.org/cgi-bin/library?a=d&d=p360

Image

Mary Frances Searles Science Building

Bowdoin College

Original name: Chemical Building; Science Building

Architect: Vaughan, Henry Woodbury and Leighton

Foundation: stone
Walls: brick
Roof: slate

Narrative:

Designed by Henry Vaughn around 1892, Searles Hall put Bowdoin in the forefront of undergraduate science education at the end of the 1800s. Vaughan’s design has been called “Jacobethan” by Henry Russell Hitchcock–“a successful hybrid, a transitional phase of English architecture which includes Gothic and nascent Renaissance elements,” (Patricia McGraw Anderson, The Architecture of Bowdoin College [Brunswick, ME: Bowdoin College Museum of Art, 1988], 42)–a style which influenced future college campus buildings. Vaughan composed the principal facade, on the quadrangle, in several interlocking sections. The central portion incorporates two narrow octagonal towers that extend the full height into the projecting gable. To either side is a recessed area four bays wide, each terminating in a straight-sided gable lower than that of the central position. On either side beyond is a projecting four-bay mass, narrower than its neighbor but capped by a generous curved Dutch gable. In turn, these sections are flanked by octagonal crenellated turrets. These substantial and picturesque elements also create a handsome transition to the north and south facades, which contained, respectively, entrances to the Departments of Physics and Chemistry.

In 1998, the architectural firm Cambridge Seven from Boston carried out the renovation and re-use of the Searles, for which they received a 2002 Education Design Showcase Grand Prize Award. They designed a very successful contextual addition visible from Maine Street. The tripartite design Vaughn originally created was no longer functional for 21st century instruction in Biology and Physics. The teaching style it embodied–the lecture with a separate lab–was out-of-date, and so the building was renovated to house modern curricula in computer science, mathematics, and physics. Biology moved to the Druckenmiller Science Complex. Chemistry had moved to Cleaveland Hall in the 1950s.

Follow up sources:

Anderson, Patricia McGraw. The Architecture of Bowdoin College. Brunswick, Me.: Bowdoin College Museum of Art, 1988

Dober, Richard P. Campus Architecture: Building in the Groves of Academe. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Source: http://hcap.artstor.org/cgi-bin/library?a=d&d=p263

ImageImage

Advertisements

second week of research

March 23, 2012

This past week I have been collecting background knowledge on my topic of the new science building. I have been reading two books, Campus Planning by R.P. Dober and Campus Heritage by R.P. Dober. The major themes that I have seen are the need for tradition pattern and history in campus planning. Dober talks a lot about  style as legacy/traditionand I am starting to get an idea as to what is nessicary to create a flow in a campus:

After talking to the librarians in special collections I learned a little about R. P. Dober himself. He is essentially the authority on campus architecture and I plan to follow more of his work.

R.P Dober’s book, Campus Heritage was extremely helpful in learning about campus style. He categorized the different styles of architecture and talked about the implications they have in institutuional connections to annectodotes, values, and culture.

Collegiate (colonial revival) Georgian

  • Flagships campuses to colonial America
  • This style often causes a dichotomy with the inside outside in science buildings. The buildings typically have a contemporary inside and a traditional exterior. I believe this would hold true in Beaux Arts aswell. Looking at the pictures of the new science building I have noted a significant contrast. The labs are state of the art and the exterior is classic. The one notable ecteption are the lecture halls wich had Beaux Arts chairs. (pictures will be uploaded later)
  • Democratic values

Gothic revival

  • Medieval roots of English higher education
  • Connected buildings and closed quadrangles
  • Said to inspire renewal of intellectual life that was spiritual sacerdotal and seasoned by tradition
  • EXPENSIVE

Beaux arts classism

  • Epical nationhood

This coming week I will look at  Campus by Paul Turner and Liberlizing The Mind (a book commissioned by the school which highlights campus history) and more at the particularities of science buildings and the history of the new science building itself. I also will dive more into the primary sources. If I have time I will get an idea of the cost of the building as this was a huge issue.

Klein reading

February 28, 2012

Between 1891 and 1911, Lancaster underwent a massive transformation. Lancaster changed from a small town to a bustling city of steam and steal.  Architects needed to accommodate for the tribulations and progressions that came hand in hand with this rapid urbanization and industrialization.

Early 20th century Lancaster businesses were expanding at rapid rates. A severe example of this rapid growth was the Krieder and Company shoe manufacturers who went from producing 200 to 2500 pairs of shoes a day. With this kind of exponential growth the building that enterprises were asking from architects had much more extreme needs in utilitas. One example that comes to mind is Keppel’s Wholesale Confectionery.  The building required multiple functions and so the architect (C. Emlen Urban) divided the building into two separate entities, a factory section and an administrative section. This is just one way that the increased utilitas demands were met.

Early 20th century Lancaster population was increasing so rapidly that the water works system wasn’t capable of purifying all the city’s water (117). The rising population spurred the need for increased housing and caused the real estate business to blossom. One point we have noted in many of the buildings we have looked at were the residential units on the upper floors. This certainly related to the booming real estate business of the early 20th century.

The article also talked about buildings increasing exterior appeal (pg. 130) to draw in more costumers. It was likely more difficult to stand apart in this increasingly energetic environment. This is likely why buildings like Shaub’s exposed almost their entire store with a two-story window to draw more customers in.

The major point I took away from this article was that as the city began to flourish and industrialize the buildings took on more functions and the architecture had to grapple this new utilitas by ch

Stager Hall, Franklin & Marshall

February 17, 2012

Utilitas

Stahr hall was a severe project in terms of its utilitas. It originally functioned as a science building. Fully equipped with labs, classrooms, and academic offices. The façade hid most of this to the outside world. The noted exceptions are the ventilation system and the façade itself as a symbol. The original building had 6 smoke stacks, which would have been utilized in the removal of hazardous gases. The façade functioned as a window of Franklin and Marshall College. The building was framed in a way to highlight the academics the college has to offer. The long pathway (utilizing expensive land in a trade off for the symbolism) draws parallels to Raphael’s School of Athens. The arch elements in the windows draw parallels to the Greek (founders of academia) arches. The building uses a division plan (the served and servant spaces are allocated through out the building.) The symmetrical building gives a palpable feeling of order.

Firmitas

I managed to procure a photo of the construction of the wings on Stahr Hall. The builders seemed to be utilizing reinforced concrete.  When one looks at the floor plan it is clear that the thick walls serve a structural purpose. The new stager has arches that do not serve a structural purpose, however the original C. Emlen Urban’s Stahr had giant windows that were supported by arch structures (and possibly support beams as well). Columns supported a concrete awning. Battered walls can be seen at the corners of the building. The building certainly utilized mostly a trebeated system. This formed the buildings harsh edges and boxed structures.

Venustas

The original Stahr Hall was a beautiful building calling several different styles of architecture into its design. The building utilized a formal symmetrical plan. The roof (hip style) was a beautiful copper green that calls reference to the academic ivy’s. The Greco-roman influence can also be seen on the entranceway with the Corinthian columns. The building was truly artfully done. It is a sad sight to see the renovations that have masked its former beauty.

North queen Street 32-68

February 12, 2012

North Queen Street – note all building as of 1929 were tile construction.

32)
• Now: Cross teas coffee and tea. tall brick building – still 5 stories
• 1929-flats on floors 3,4, and 5
• 1919- expansion made to the right side of building. Is not consistent with structure of 1929 yet
• 1891-same construction as 1886- American House now
• 1886- small hotel

34)
• Now: Cross teas coffee and tea. tall brick building – still 5 stories
• 1929-flats on floors 3,4, and 5
• 1919- expansion made to the right side of building. Is not consistent with structure of 1929 yet
• 1891- same construction as 1886- American House now
• 1886-small hotel

36)
• Now: New Concrete building currently occupied by a clothing store
• 1929-The Lancaster Trust Company
• 1919- Becomes the Lancaster Trust Company. Structural changes are consistent with those of 1929
• 1891-expantion made from 1886 structure- reduced courtyard
• 1886-

38)
• Now: New Concrete building currently occupied by a clothing store
• 1929-The Lancaster Trust Company
• 1919- Becomes the Lancaster Trust Company. Structural changes are consistent with those of 1929
• 1891- expantion made from 1886 structure- reduced courtyard
• 1886-
40)
• Now: New concrete clothing store
• no information on 1929 map as to function
• 1919- same as 1929 structure
• 1891- similar to 1929 structure
• 1886-similar to 1929
42)
• Now: New concrete clothing store
• no information on 1929 map as to function
• 1919- similar to 1929 structure
• 1891- similar to 1929 structure
• 1886- same as 1929

44)
• Now: Has Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware written on façade. Has tile fasade consistent with what would be used in 1919. But clearly new windows added
• 1929-Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware
• 1919- Remodeling consistent with 1929 structure. Becomes Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware.
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886-

46)
• Now: Has Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware written on façade. Has tile fasade consistent with what would be used in 1919. But clearly new windows added
• 1929-Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware
• 1919- Remodeling consistent with 1929 structure. Becomes Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware.
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886-

48)
• Now:
• 1929-Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware
• 1919- Remodeling consistent with 1929 structure. Becomes Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware.
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886-

50)
• Now: Modern looking botique
• 1929-Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware
• 1919- Remodeling consistent with 1929 structure. Becomes Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware.
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886-

52)
• Now: Concrete Mini Mall
• 1929- No info as to function
• 1919-Additions made from the 1891 structure. But not entirely consistent with the 1929 structure yet.
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886-

54)
• Now: Concrete Mini mall
• 1929- Drug store in front, Parking garage in back
• 1919- Remodeled construction is consistent with 1929 construction
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886- Drug store in front

56)
• Now: Concrete Mini Mall
• 1929- Drug store in front, Parking garage in back
• 1919- Remodeled construction is consistent with 1929 construction
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886- Drug store in front
58)
• Now: Brick and wood veneer jewlers
• no information on 1929 map as to function
• 1919- same as 1929
• 1891- same as 1929
• 1886- same as 1929

60)
• Now: Brick and wood veneer. Coffee and bakery
• no information on 1929 map as to function
• 1919- same as 1929
• 1891- same as 1929
• 1886- same as 1929

68)
• Now: Brick building: restaurant and lounge
• no information on 1929 map as to function
• 1919- same as 1929
• 1891- same as 1929
• 1886- same as 1929

North Queen Street Venustas

 

 

Cross teas coffee and tea is a brick building with a Flemish bond. The outer wall of the building is not the most special specimen however the window elements are quite nice. The windows have stool, aprons, and interior casings made with a metal that is painted with a modern copper green giving it an old world feel. The roofing has this same green paint with ornamental cutaways. The windows also have a Greco roman key stone element (despite the absence of any arches). The bottom store front is painted a kind of ugly green that in my opinion adds no true decorative value.

 

 

 

This building essentially looks like a tall block.  There are no windows except for the bottom storefront. It is painted the same ugly green that the bottom of the coffee shop is. There is an odd division between the top of the building which is just a bland block of concrete and the bottom of the building. The bottom of the building is sectioned off with a vertical striping. It has arched windows and an arched doorway that are obviously meant for decoration however they do not look visually striking to me personally.

 

 

The façade of this building has striking similarities to the venustas of its adjacent (previously mentioned building. The same dull green color predominates. It appears that the flanking walls and upper façade might be much older than the building itself. They draw striking similarities to the kind of walls that C. Emlen Urban used in his designs. The new storefront does not compare to the beauty of the flanking walls. The upper façade has beautiful stone inlays that flow well into the adjacent C. Emlen Urban building. One of the most marked features are the two veneer mask on each side of the store. They add a sort of gothic feel to the entire structure.

 

 

This is my personal favorite building in this block. This building is an original C.Emlen Urban building. The façade is beautifully done. The building has a thin limestone coating with handsome veneer masonry. One of the most interesting features of this building are the windows. It has a two-story window that draws the eye in to the entrance. The upper level windows have the same beautiful copper green that I spoke of in the first building. The roof is also made out of this well-dressed material.

 

This mall fits quite well into the themes of venustas that are present in the other buildings on this block. The same green-tan color scheme is used here. The windows are lined with the same copper colored metal and the awning has the same green that painted the second building. Two peculiar features that are not present on the previously mentioned buildings are the dormer pointers and the detail work on the windows. The windows have wings on top which flow nicely with the block scheme.

 

 

This building and the one adjacent to it are quite particular when compared to the rest of the block (this makes sense after looking at the sanborn maps). This building draws striking similarities to a barn house. The lower level is composed of brick with varying different patterns, a large wooden door and small display windows. The upper level is much more interesting. It is covered in a wood façade with a detailed inlay giving it an old world feel. It is interesting that the color scheme shifts so dramatically here.

 

 

 

This building follows the color scheme of its neighbor. It is painted brick red. The flanking walls and the upper levels have a common brick pattern. One feature that ties this building in to venustas of the other buildings on the block are the windows. Although they are surrounded by wood, they are painted in the copper green that the is so popular on this block. An interesting feature of this building are the columnettes flanking the door. The columnettes create a frame around the door. This building’s venustas is closely tied to its utilitas. Being a lounge it has large windows on the first floor giving it an open feel.

Conrad Cast

February 12, 2012

Conrad Cast was a shoemaker and cobbler in Lancaster Pennsylvania. He was born Jan 11 1813 and died Dec 10 1884. He was married first to a Catherine S. Cast but she passed away in the year of 1847. He remarried to Harriet Cast. He had two daughters, Mary Miley and Catherine Hart and he had a son Amos C. Cast. He took on many apprentices as a shoemaker including a Reuben Shirk. His last known estate was a two story brick house on West James Street number 218. He was a low level freemason.

Sources:
The Lancaster Law Review, “Estate of Conrad Cast.” Lancaster: Inquirer Printing, 1886. 89-90. Google books. Web. 30 Jan. 2012
Welchans, George R. History of Lodge No. 43, F.&A. M. Rep. Lancaster: Lodge No. 43, F.&A. M, 1885. Web. 2 Feb. 2012.

Conrad Cast Tomb, Lancaster Cemetery

February 2, 2012

Conrad Cast was a shoemaker and cobbler in Lancaster Pennsylvania. He was born Jan 11 1813 and died Dec 10 1884. He was married first to a Catherine S. Cast but she passed away in the year of 1847. He remarried to Harriet Cast. He had two daughters, Mary Miley and Catherine Hart and he had a son Amos C. Cast. He took on many apprentices as a shoemaker including a Reuben Shirk. His last known estate was a two story brick house on West James Street number 218. He was a low level freemason.

Sources:
The Lancaster Law Review, “Estate of Conrad Cast.” Lancaster: Inquirer Printing, 1886. 89-90. Google books. Web. 30 Jan. 2012
Welchans, George R. History of Lodge No. 43, F.&A. M. Rep. Lancaster: Lodge No. 43, F.&A. M, 1885. Web. 2 Feb. 2012.

North Queen Street 32-68

February 2, 2012

North Queen Street – note all building as of 1929 were tile construction.

32)
• Now: Cross teas coffee and tea. tall brick building – still 5 stories
• 1929-flats on floors 3,4, and 5
• 1919- expansion made to the right side of building. Is not consistent with structure of 1929 yet
• 1891-same construction as 1886- American House now
• 1886- small hotel

34)
• Now: Cross teas coffee and tea. tall brick building – still 5 stories
• 1929-flats on floors 3,4, and 5
• 1919- expansion made to the right side of building. Is not consistent with structure of 1929 yet
• 1891- same construction as 1886- American House now
• 1886-small hotel

36)
• Now: New Concrete building currently occupied by a clothing store
• 1929-The Lancaster Trust Company
• 1919- Becomes the Lancaster Trust Company. Structural changes are consistent with those of 1929
• 1891-expantion made from 1886 structure- reduced courtyard
• 1886-

38)
• Now: New Concrete building currently occupied by a clothing store
• 1929-The Lancaster Trust Company
• 1919- Becomes the Lancaster Trust Company. Structural changes are consistent with those of 1929
• 1891- expantion made from 1886 structure- reduced courtyard
• 1886-
40)
• Now: New concrete clothing store
• no information on 1929 map as to function
• 1919- same as 1929 structure
• 1891- similar to 1929 structure
• 1886-similar to 1929
42)
• Now: New concrete clothing store
• no information on 1929 map as to function
• 1919- similar to 1929 structure
• 1891- similar to 1929 structure
• 1886- same as 1929

44)
• Now: Has Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware written on façade. Has tile fasade consistent with what would be used in 1919. But clearly new windows added
• 1929-Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware
• 1919- Remodeling consistent with 1929 structure. Becomes Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware.
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886-

46)
• Now: Has Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware written on façade. Has tile fasade consistent with what would be used in 1919. But clearly new windows added
• 1929-Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware
• 1919- Remodeling consistent with 1929 structure. Becomes Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware.
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886-

48)
• Now:
• 1929-Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware
• 1919- Remodeling consistent with 1929 structure. Becomes Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware.
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886-

50)
• Now: Modern looking botique
• 1929-Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware
• 1919- Remodeling consistent with 1929 structure. Becomes Reilly Bro’s & Raub Wholesale & Retail Hardware.
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886-

52)
• Now: Concrete Mini Mall
• 1929- No info as to function
• 1919-Additions made from the 1891 structure. But not entirely consistent with the 1929 structure yet.
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886-

54)
• Now: Concrete Mini mall
• 1929- Drug store in front, Parking garage in back
• 1919- Remodeled construction is consistent with 1929 construction
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886- Drug store in front

56)
• Now: Concrete Mini Mall
• 1929- Drug store in front, Parking garage in back
• 1919- Remodeled construction is consistent with 1929 construction
• 1891- same construction as 1886
• 1886- Drug store in front
58)
• Now: Brick and wood veneer jewlers
• no information on 1929 map as to function
• 1919- same as 1929
• 1891- same as 1929
• 1886- same as 1929

60)
• Now: Brick and wood veneer. Coffee and bakery
• no information on 1929 map as to function
• 1919- same as 1929
• 1891- same as 1929
• 1886- same as 1929

68)
• Now: Brick building: restaurant and lounge
• no information on 1929 map as to function
• 1919- same as 1929
• 1891- same as 1929
• 1886- same as 1929